The natural water m in Iraq is facing massive destruction and quality degradation mainly due to absence of effective protection regulations against the direct discharge of pollutants, and inefficient wastewater treatment at Iraq's sewage treatment plants. Alsamawah City is the center of Almuthanna Province in Southern Iraq. The wastewater treatment plant that serves the city is facing major problems related to improper design and/or implementation of the structural plan, lack of professional operators, power shortage, and lack of maintenance. An environmental evaluation of the plant was conducted. The plant was not able to reduce the tested contaminants properly and failed to comply with standards. Effluent average concentration of oil and grease, TSS, CL-, NH3, COD, and H2S was 42.0, 5.4, 3.5, 1.6, 1.2, and 1.2 times higher than the local standards, respectively. It complies only at the events when a contaminant is originally had a low concentration in the raw sewage. In most sampling events the results show that wastewater was leaving plant with little to no treatment, turning the plant into the top point source polluter in the province. To quantify and show decision-makers the damages occurred due to improper treatment at the plant, life cycle assessment methodology (endpoint approach) was used. Annual damages from Alsamawah WWTP are 7.3 (±0.8) years loss in human life, 2.5×10-2 (±2.9×10-3) species loss in the area, and $1.1×10+7 (±1.2×10+6) more expenses needed for future generations

 

 

The use of treated waste water is important for agriculture development; farmers in Iraq have been utilizing sewage water without treatment the most serious problems in this area are related to pathogens, heavy metal contamination andsalinity build –up.
Studies carried out in Iraq have shown that treated sewage water can be used to irrigate fodder crop and some vegetables.
In general, in Baghdad, treated effluent directed to the Diyala River from treatment plants goes to Tigris River through additional natural flow purification processes before it is abstracted for irrigation downstream.
 
 
 

The Tigris River is the second largest river in Western Asia. Its basin i shared by four countries: Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. Besides contributions from precipitation that originates in the Armenian Highlands, the Tigris is fed by numerous tributaries that rise in the Zagros Mountains in Iran, Iraq and Turkey. The Tigris has a higher water yield than the Euphrates River. Historically, the natural annual flow of the Tigris at the Iraqi-Syrian-Turkish border was around 21 BCM. In recent years, Tigris flow volumes have been affected by large water development projects in Iraq and Turkey. The flow volume records for Kut show a significant negative trend. Water supplies to the Mesopotamian Marshlands have also dwindled over the past 40 years

 

 

 

 

 

For almost 30 years, including during the period of occupation by the US- and UK-led Coalition Provisional Authority, Iraqi authorities have failed to properly manage and regulate Iraq’s water resources, depriving the people in Iraq’s southern Basra governorate—a population of roughly 4 million—of their right to safe drinking water. Basra’s primary water sources are the Shatt al-Arab river and its freshwater canals. But multiple government failures since the 1980s, including poor management of upstream sources, inadequate regulation of pollution and sewage, and chronic neglect and
mismanagement of water infrastructure, have caused the quality of these waterways to deteriorate.
While the degradation of Basra’s water sources has been a persistent problem for decades, it became a full-blown crisis in the summer of 2018, when at least 118,000 people were hospitalized due to symptoms doctors identified as related to water quality. In August, hundreds of people began pouring into Basra’s hospitals suffering from rashes, abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea, overwhelming their staff and available stocks of medicine. By August 16, the Basra Health Directorate identified water contamination as a likely cause, and its director, Riyad Abd al-Amir, called on people to boil all water before drinking or cooking with it 
 
 
 
 
 

Watered by the major tributaries of the Tigris River, the northeastern highlands of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI) enjoy higher rates of precipitation compared to the alluvial plain stretching across central and southern Iraq and the western desert lying south of the Euphrates River.

Unfortunately, despite this relative wealth and diversification of water resources, exogenous and endogenous drivers of change are severely endangering water security in the KRI. The intensified water shortages caused not only by lowered reserves and reduced water quality, but also over-consumption and bureaucratic mismanagement, have prompted the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) to devise a long-term comprehensive planning process to ensure self-sufficiency and sustainable development. 
 
 
 
 
 

إن مياه الشرب ذات أهمية خاصة في الحقل البيئي وذلك لعلاقته الشديدة بإنتشار الأمراض التي تنتقل بواسطته في حالة عدم مطابقته للمعايير القياسية التي حددتها منظمة الصحة العالمية من الناحية الجرثومية وتأثيرها على المستهلك وخاصة بين الأطفال . تمت دراسة الواقع البيئي لمياه الشرب إضافة إلى نوعية مياه الشرب وتقدير مدى مطابقتها للمعايير المألوفة في هذا المجال . إن المياه على العموم توصف بالعسرة عند وجود تراكيز محددة لمعادن ذائبة مثل الكالسيوم والمغنيسيوم .كما وإن المياه العسرة ليست خطرة بدرجات عالية على صحة المستهلك , ولكن ربما تسبب بعض الأمراض والتعامل معها صعب لما تسببه من تراكم الترسبات في الأنابيب والأجهزة المنزلية إضافة إلى ذلك تسبب ضعف أداء مواد ومساحيق التنظيف و تأثيراتها على معايير النظافة . بالرغم من كثرة الموارد المائية للعراق والتي لا تحتاج إلى تحلية مياه إلا أن العراق مستقبلاً مهدد " بحرب المياه " حيث تؤثر الجارة تركيا على كميات المياه القادمة إلى العراق لأن نهري دجلة و الفرات تنبع من الأراضي التركية . لهذا لابد من مناقشة الأساليب المتبعة في تحلية مياه الشرب لأن العراق ربما يحتاج إلى تحلية مياه الشرب كأن يكون مصدرها مياه جوفية أو مياه بحار{ لأن هذه المصادر مياهها مالحة } . ومازال العراق يعتمد على نهري دجلة والفرات والعملية المتبعة هي تصفية مياه الشـــــرب وتنقيته أو تطهيره حيث تم في هذه الدراســـة حساب مقدار عســــرة مياه الشــــرب في مدينة بغداد إضافة إلى ذلك مقدار عســـرة مياه البئر فيها وتمت مناقشة إســــتعمال غاز الكلور والأوزون من أجل جعل ماء الشــرب آمناً لحماية المســـــتهلك . بينت النتائج بأن مســــــتوي تركيز الأملاح الذائبة الكلية TDS بلغت مقداراً 808 ملغم / لتر بينما أن متوسط العسرة الكلية T.H. بلغت مقداراً 435 ملغم / لترغي نهر دجلة وسط مدينة بغداد وهو مؤشر سيء على نوعية مياه الشرب المجهز للمستهلكين . هذه الدراسة البحثية أن هذه النتيجة هي تقترب من الحدود المؤثرة أقتصاديات المستهلك وربما على صحته .

 

 

 

تعرف البيئة بأنها أجمالي الظروف الخارجية التي تؤثر في حياة الكائن الحي ونموه وبقائه. ومن المعروف أن البيئة الطبيعية تعتمد على ثلاث عناصر رئيسة هي الهـواء والمـاء والأرض وتعتبـر مـن أساسيات الحياة ويتميز النظام البيئي بالتوازن بين عناصره ويمكن للنظام البيئي أن يحافظ على هذا التوازن ولكن ضمن حدود معينة قابلة للتأثر. ونتيجة لحدوث الثورة الصناعية وتسارع التطور في مختلف مجالات الحياة واسـتخدام المكننـة وصناعة المواد الكيماوية والمواد المشعة وكذلك الزيادة في استخدام مصادر توليد الطاقـة والاسـتنزاف الجائر للموارد الطبيعية وحدوث الكوارث نتيجة النشاط الإنساني ، كل ذلك أدى إلى حدوث خلل في التوازن البيئي مما نتج عنه ظهور العديد من المشاكل البيئية.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Shortly after installation, the Chief Engineer at the Iraq Water Treatment Facility, Abbas Hassan, made the following statement: “It solves both of the main problems we have right now, which is having access to clean water while also having a reliable power source.” In an article published by the United States Embassy in Baghdad on June 7, 2008, the Fallujah District Council Chairman, Hamid Hamid Ahmed Hashim Al-Alwani, made the following remarks: “Clean drinking water is enormously important to our people. … Most people receive drinking water from wells or directly from the Euphrates River, which is contaminated. The solar powered water purication units will be crucial in preventing diseases like cholera and bilharzia.”