A refugee crisis was feared before the coalition invasion of Iraq in 2003, but it came later than anticipated,and on a greater scale. It started not because of the military action, but two years later, when American efforts to rebuild the country faltered, violence escalated, and civilians became the targets of insurgent groups and sectarian militias. And while exact numbers are uncertain, the scale of the problem is not in dispute: today, Iraq’s refugee crisis – with some two and a half million outside the country and the same number internally displaced – ranks as the world’s second in terms of numbers, preceded only by Afghanistan and ahead of Sudan. While the security situation in Iraq shows progress, the refugee crisis will endure for some time and could worsen if that progress proves fleeting. 
This public mental health study highlights the interactions among social determinants and resilience on mental health, PTSD and acculturation among Iraqi refugees in Sweden 2012-2013.
Objectives: The study aims to understand participants' health, resilience and acculturation, paying specific attention to gender differences.
Design: The study, using a convenience sampling survey design (N = 4010, 53.2% men), included measures on social determinants, general health, coping, CD-RISC, selected questions from the EMIC, PC-PTSD, and acculturation.
Results: Gender differences and reported differences between life experiences in Iraq and Sweden were strong. In Sweden, religious activity was more widespread among women, whereas activity reflecting religion and spirituality as a coping mechanism decreased significantly among men. A sense of belonging both to a Swedish and an Iraqi ethnic identity was frequent. Positive self-evaluation in personal and social areas and goals in life was strong.

Since President George W. Bush announced a “global war on terror” following Al Qaeda’s September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States, the U.S. military has engaged in combat around the world. As in past conflicts, the United States’ post-9/11 wars have resulted in mass population displacements. This report is the first to measure comprehensively how many people these wars have displaced. Using the best available international data, this report conservatively estimates that at least 37 million people have fled their homes in the eight most violent wars the U.S. military has launched or participated in since 2001. The report details a methodology for calculating wartime displacement, provides an overview of displacement in each war-affected country, and points to displacement’s individual and societal impacts.




Of the myriad consequences of the Iraq war, few are as large-scale, long-term, and broad in geographic scope as the Iraqi refugee crisis. The flight of one in five Iraqis over eight years has played a large role in the desecration of Iraq’s social fabric, not least by hollowing out Iraq’s moderate middle class.1 It has also impacted politics and ivelihoods in nearby Arab states, which have historically played host to some of the largest refugee populations in the world. While few Arab governments are signatories to the UN Refugee Convention, most have been tolerant of Iraqi influx, and some have integrated an astonishing volume of Iraqis since the onset of the crisis. Others, such as the Gulf monarchies, have consented to resettle only the wealthiest and most well connected Iraqis,2 and still others have denied them recognition altogether. 

















A decade after the American invasion of Iraq, health and medical services in the country are still in shambles. The American war and sanctions on Iraq have contributed to the death of hundreds of thousands of Iraqis and the affliction of millions over the past twenty years. 1 This harm was the direct and indirect effect of both violence and the targeting and dismantling of state infrastructure and its capacity to provide care and services to its general population.2



The United States government has justified decades of intervention in Iraq in a variety of ways, the most recent of which is the current “war on terrorism.” All of these interventions have had devastating costs and consequences for Iraqis. Since the 1960s, the U.S. has treated Iraq as essential to its own economic and geopolitical interests; Iraqi arms purchases have bolstered the American military-industrial complex and stable access to Middle East oil has secured U.S. dominance in the global economy. As the U.S. has pursued these interests in Iraq, U.S. interventions have reshaped the Iraqi social, political, and cultural landscape. While the role the United States has played in Iraq since the 1960s is beginning to receive some scholarly attention, it remains widely unknown to the American public




The information in the DTM portal is the result of data collected by IOM field teams and complements information provided and generated by governmental and other entities in Iraq. IOM Iraq endeavors to keep this information as up to date and accurate as possible, but makes no claim—expressed or implied— on the completeness, accuracy and suitability of the information provided through this website. Challenges that should be taken into account when using DTM data in Iraq include the fluidity of the displaced population movements along with repeated emergency situations and limited access to large parts of the country.



In December 2017, for the first time since the beginning of the crisis, the DTM reported a higher figure for returnees (3.2 million) than IDPs (2.6 million) across the country. As of 31 July 2018, nearly four million individuals have now returned to their home location and there are less than two million identified IDPs. Following completion of Round 100 Baseline assessments activities, the DTM has identified 1,953,984 IDPs (325,664 families) who were displaced after January 2014, dispersed across 104 districts and 3,335 locations in Iraq. For the same period, DTM also identified 3,956,610 returnees (659,435 families) across 1,442 locations in 37 districts.


Refugees – UNHCR coordinates with the Government, UN agencies, and local and international partners on the response for refugees, including activities related to registration, protection monitoring and advocacy, legal aid, psychosocial support, child protection, and prevention and response to sexual and gender-based violence(SGBV). Resettlement to third countries is pursued for a small number of refugees with acute vulnerabilities.
 IDPs – Direct interventions are undertaken with local, regional and national authorities to ensure that the displaced can access safety in camps and in non-camp locations. Protection monitoring teams have been deployed to identify protection and assistance needs, which directly inform protection responses, including provision of legal assistance on a range of issues such as missing civil documentation, prevention and response to SGBV and
sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA), child protection, reunification of separated families, and the coordination of IDP protection responses with the government, NGOs and other UN agencies.