The Shelter Cluster has been coordinating the shelter and NFI response in Iraq since the onset of the conflict against ISIL in 2014. Following the progressive liberation of several locations occupied by ISIL, international actors started engaging in the rehabilitation of residential houses that were damaged by the military operations. Such programs have been contributing to a process of durable return, in which highly vulnerable families have been supported to regain their properties and reside in minimum standard shelter conditions, whilst re-establishing their lives in areas affected by the ISIL conflict.

The most conflict-affected governorates are Al-Anbar, Babylon, Baghdad, Diyala, Kirkuk, Ninewa, and Salah-Al-Din, where neither urban centres nor rural areas have been spared by the disastrous consequences of the war. At present, nearly 4.8 million individuals have returned to their areas of origin, but not necessarily to their habitual residence especially when fully destroyed. Meanwhile 1.2 million individuals remain in displacement1 , many of whom cite severe damage to / destruction of their properties, dwindling savings and their inability to pay for the rehabilitation, as one of the top three barriers to return. This document aims at presenting the status of housing 




Iraq has been facing a severe power crisis since 2003 and is projected to surge in the long run. Efforts so far had been focusing on the supply side, while neglecting an equally important aspect of improving the energy efficiency on the demand side. The technical and commercial losses exceed 50 percent of the generated power. The majority of the losses are in the residential sector, which represents the highest energy consumer from the demand side. This report discusses the current status of energy efficiency in the residential sector of Iraq including policies and regulatory setup. The institutional, financial and technical barriers are discussed which could form an overarching basis to the core principle of transition towards a common vision of environmental protection, emissions reduction, resource efficiency, security of supply and consumer protection.



The city of Mosul is one of Iraq’s principal cities located approximately 250 miles north of Baghdad, the city stands on the west bank of the Tigris River, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank (Map 1). It is the capital of the northern Iraqi Governorate of Nineveh and Iraq’s second largest city after Baghdad. Mosul District is the most populated of Nineveh’s nine districts with over 2 Million pre-Daesh population. Mosul has a hot climate with extremely dry hot summers (record high 49 °C) and moderately wet, relatively cool winters (average low 12 °C). Its relative wealth and strategic significance grew after oil fields were discovered nearby in the 1920s and a major oil pipeline was built in Turkey.                  In June 2014, Daesh stunned the world by seizing Mosul, Iraq’s second-largest city. Now Mosul is the last major Iraqi population center under Daesh control, with all others having already been retaken by Iraqi government forces. In October 2016 the Iraqi government launched an offensive to retake the city from Daesh — an offensive which until the time of writing this document has liberated major areas in Nineveh and the Left Bank of Mosul city



Northern Iraq as part of Iraq, has been witnessed a great population increment last few  decades.  However, housing  stress  in  Northern  Iraq  has  risen  due  to  that. Environmental, economic and social sustainability became crucial in the movement towards a more effective built environment and community nowadays. This research seeks  to  evaluate  the  presence  of  sustainability  aspects  (environmental,  economic, and  social)  inhousing  sector,  which  makes  them  acquired  and  affordable  for  low income   earnersin   Northern   Iraq. Housing   projects   as   case   studies   were investigated  in  Erbil,  the  capital  of  Northern  Iraq.  The  research  examined,  the presence of sustainability aspects. Field observations checklist have been prepared based  on  the  theoretical  analysis  through  literature  review  and  applied  to  collect data  on  the  case  studies.The  results  demonstrated  that  applying  the  aspects  of sustainability  for  the  buildings  is  weak  and  not clearly  familiar  in  Northern  Iraq. The  study  concluded  that,  the  housing  projects  focusing  on  the  case  studies  not sustainable




Iraq is facing a housing shortage of around 1.0 million housingunits, which is equivalent to around 25% of its current housing stock. At the same time, it suffers from having a low housingproduction. As a first step towards managing this challenge, the country needs to identify a proper approach to drive developments. For this purpose, a new Iraqi National Housing Policy was issued in 2010. It proposed adopting private sector-led production to handle the housing problems. However, within a context dominated by instability, a negative investment environment, and weak private sector, the Policy’s approach has not been applicable. The private sector has not been able to take this role. Accordingly, a comprehensive investigation is required to assess the possible housing approaches and to define a prospective way forward for the country, which has not been found in previous literature. This paper aims to address this challenge by exploring and investigating what has been done by other countries to successfully manage problems similar to those currently faced  by Iraq. The research methodology 

The most recent war in Iraq has resulted in a large wave of internal and external displacement with increased sectarian violence and ethnic tension. Subsequent conflict has exacerbated conditions within the nation and further increased displacement. Throughout the country, over one million Iraqis are currently displaced. Inadequately supported by infrastructure due to a negligent dictatorship and consecutive wars, over 250 settlements have peppered Baghdad's landscape and aggravated the capital's insufficient infrastructure. It is clear that the rapid rate at which informal settlements for internally displaced persons (IDPs) are being established exceeds the rate in which settlements are forming Many settlements have exhibited user-initiated incremental housing processes. The topic of this thesis is upgrading settlements for IDPs in Baghdad, Iraq through user-initiate




The UN Iraq Trust Fund has funded the Strengthening the Capacity of the Housing Sector in Iraq project and it seeks to build capacity among Iraqi central and local authorities to address the housing problems of the country.1 Phase I of the project started in mid 2004 and is due to be completed in June 2006. Should additional funding become available, Phase II needs to make an important contribution towards transforming the crude reality of Iraq’s housing sector. The Iraqi government will be required to introduce good governance and adopt best practices releasing the necessary resources, from both the public and private sector, to rehabilitate the country’s existing housing stock while developing an efficient market for housing and finance products for Iraqi households requiring housing solutions. This paper explores how the private, public and non-profit sectors can collaborate with Iraqi authorities to enhance financing and construction of housing for all incomes with special consideration for middle and lowincome urban poor. The following urges that the Iraqi Housing Fund should act as the driving force for institutional and policy reform in housing and finance, by channeling public resources, through




A residence strongly influences the lifestyle of its occupants  and  may  be  a  determining  factor  for the  family's  quality  of  life.  To  maintain  the comfort  and  well-being  of  its  occupants,  each dwelling  should  be  adequatefor  the  household. The    dwelling    should    therefore    provide    a habitable and comfortable environment. Housing space   standards   in   many   countries   set   the conditions  for  achieving  these  objectives  and generally regulate the overall sizes of individual rooms in addition to the layouts of dwellings.This  paper  seeks  to  explore  the  relationship between    habitable    area    ratios    and    other component area ratios, such as the structure area, the service area, the circulation area and the open space  area,  in  the  context  of  Iraqi  single-family houses. Therefore, this study aims to answer two key questions: Is the habitable area ratio among other   ratios   compatible   with   Iraqi   housing standards? And does it affect the performance 




Iraq experiences housing shortage of around 1–1.5 million units with low production rate. Managing this challenge requires integrated efforts across a number of fields. One way forward is to develop an integral and appropriate architectural solution. In Iraq, it remains unknown which of the possible architectural approaches is adequate to address its housing challenges while considering occupants׳ preferences. Aiming at helping in forming a solution, this study critically assesses the possible building patterns and construction approaches, which represent the main architectural solutions׳ framework. To achieve this aim, an extensive literature review was conducted that explores possible alternatives and housing requirements. Alternatives were assessed by comparing and contrasting their adequacy in satisfying Iraqis׳ preferences and the housing sector requirements. The assessment included conducting two surveys: a public Iraqis survey and an experts survey.




The situation in Iraq remains unstable with widespread humanitaria concerns. Years of conflict uprooted millions of people, eroded social cohesion, disrupted access to basic services, destroyed livelihoods and led to increased protection risks. With weak central governance and limited progress towards recovery and development, the situation has become protracted and millions of people across Iraq remain in need of humanitarian assistance.
In 2020, Iraq is simultaneously categorized as an upper middle-income country and one that INFORM’s Global Risk Index labels as “very high risk” of a humanitarian crisis. More than two years after Iraq’s military operations against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) ended, social, ethnic and sectarian tensions persist on multiple fronts. Political uncertainty and natural disasters continue to intensify humanitarian