The aim of this paper is to review the phenomena of Iraqi Physician Brain Drain during a Prolonged Conflict from the Coalition invasion in 2003 to 2010. Personal interviews with migration experts, Iraqi doctors and policy makers, Iraq field travel over the course of four years, peer reviewed journals, and website and policy reviews, think tank data, governmental reports and publically available sources were reviewed and assessed from 2003 to 2010 to review the Iraq Brain Drain phenomenon. At present, data related to those doctors who have fled Iraq due to the violence are inconclusive, fragmented and in some instances only anecdotal. Brain Drain in Iraq remains to be a major barrier of healthcare access for Iraqis. The next aspect of Brain Drain research in Iraq must be the quantitative and systematic review of the number of doctors working in Iraq, the number of Iraqi medical school graduates and standardized medical practice assessment of clinical skills and knowledge for best medical outcomes. 





BackgroundIn March, 2003, military forces, mainly from the USA and the UK, invaded Iraq. We did a survey tocompare mortality during the period of 14·6 months before the invasion with the 17·8 months after it.

Methods:A  cluster  sample  survey  was  undertaken  throughout  Iraq  during  September,  2004.  33  clusters  of30 households each were interviewed about household composition, births, and deaths since January, 2002. In thosehouseholds reporting deaths, the date, cause, and circumstances of violent deaths were recorded. We assessed therelative risk of death associated with the 2003 invasion and occupation by comparing mortality in the 17·8 monthsafter the invasion with the 14·6-month period preceding it.

Findings; The risk of death was estimated to be 2·5-fold (95% CI 1·6–4·2) higher after the invasion when comparedwith the preinvasion period. Two-thirds of all violent deaths were reported in one cluster in the city of Falluja. If weexclude  the  Falluja  data,  the  risk  of  death  is  1·5-fold  (1·1–2·3)  higher  after  the  invasion.  We  estimate  that98000 more deaths than expected (8000–194000) happened after the invasion outside of Falluja and far more if theoutlier  Falluja  cluster  is  included.  The  major  causes  of  death  before  the  invasion  were  myocardial  infarction,cerebrovascular accidents, and other chronic disorders whereas after the invasion violence was the primary cause ofdeath. Violent deaths were widespread, reported in 15 of 33 clusters, and were mainly attributed to coalition forces.Most individuals reportedly killed by coalition forces were women and children. The risk of death from violence inthe period after the invasion was 58 times higher (95% CI 8·1–419) than in the period before the war




Iraq's fourth Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 4) conducted in 2011 provided a new evidence base on the situation of children in the country. The findings from a multiple-deprivation analysis of the MICS 4 data identified the most underserved Iraqi children, including details of their location and the deprivations they experienced. The most deprived children were found in rural areas, from poor households, and had mothers with low levels of education.
The MICS 4 findings revealed 36% of all children, around 5.7 million, faced three or more deprivations at the same time. Another 30% (five million children) experienced two deprivations simultaneously, while only about a third, roughly 34% (5.5 million children) faced just one or no deprivations. 
Results showed wide disparities across geographic areas, with the percentage of highly deprived children (three or more deprivations) varying from as low as 16% in Sulaymaniyah to as high as 55% in Missan. The absolute number of highly deprived children also varied from as low as 65,000 in Dohuk to as high as 860,000 in Baghdad. These findings demonstrate that Iraq’s MDG targets could have been achieved by expanding access to services to the most deprived children, and that targets would be attained faster by focusing on the most deprived children and areas first.



The Federal Foreign Office of Germany has generously donated  EUR  30  million  (USD  34.8  million)  to  the  Iraq Humanitarian  Fund  (IHF),  a  pooled  fund  led  by  the Humanitarian  Coordinator  and  managed  by  OCHA. In support for the  Mosul  humanitarian  operation,the IHF has sofar provided  more  than  USD  70  million  to front-line  partners.  In  October  2017,  USD  14  million was allocated for the Hawiga operationonly.

WHO   in   partnership   with   AISPO   inaugurated   on   9 December 2017 the opening of the Neonatal Intensive Care  Unit  (NICU)  in  Duhok  Maternity  Hospital.  The project which   was   funded   by Japan   and EU will decrease the caseload and enhancethe secondary and tertiary  health care servicesdelivered  for  IDPs  and Syrian Refugees in Duhok governorate.

As  of  31  December,  more  than 515,702 consultations including  more  than 73,128children under5  yearswere recorded by WHO and its implementing partners in IDPshosting governorates. WHO   supported   Anbar   DOH   with   139 wheelchairspurchased  withfunds  from  the  Government  of  South Koreagrant.The Wheelchairs were distributed to IDPs in  IDP camps in Anbar governorate



1Morethan18  497  people  from Mosul  city  were referred to field hospitals through the established trauma pathways as of 23 July 2017, while 12 666people   treated   at   Trauma   Stabilization   Points near  frontline  areas  of  western  Mosul as  of 20 July 201

A  total number of consultations  provided  by  the primary health care centers  (PHCC) and  mobile medical  clinics  (MMCs) in Mosul IDP  camps  has reached 931 369since the beginning of the crisis till  the23rdof July this  year. Almost 23  019 of overall  consultations wasreported  in  the  past two  weeks  and  showedthe  consistent  need forprimary health care services for MosulIDPs.WHO organized a 5-day polio data quality self-assessment training workshop in Erbil to supportthe five  directorates of healthof  Erbil,  Suleimaniya,  Duhok,  Kirkuk  and  Ninewa  in  the  area  of quality datacollection and analysis.






Until two decades ago, the main indicators of the health status of the Iraqi people were improving substantially and health care services were achieving high standards. However, the regime which ruled Iraq during
the last three decades did not consider health a priority; the health system, therefore, suffered from progressive neglect and budgetary allocations did not reflect population needs.As a result, health indicators
fell to levels comparable to some of the least developed countries. Highly competent and experienced professionals left the country and serious
gaps developed in the provision of health services.
The decline was exacerbated by major wars, disastrous military adventures, and political and economic sanctions.
The country currently faces enormous health challenges. This document describes one of the initial steps in our mission to address these challenges and rebuild the health system. It provides a brief description of the health situation and assesses current trends; it also establishes a baseline for rehabilitation efforts, identifies the key priorities for reconstruction, and offers strategies and a rationale for immediate action.




In October, humanitarian partners provided life-saving assistance to civilians aected by military operations in Hawiga and western Anbar, and to people in newly-accessible areas of Telafar and Mosul. Humanitarian partners reached up to 6.8 million people in 1,424 geographical locations across Iraq. The bulk of humanitarian assistance was provided in camps, out-of-camp settings and newly accessible areas of Ninewa governorate to address the needs of the people aected by the Mosul and Telafar operations. Clusters focused on the preparations for the coming winter season, and worked closely with the Government to prepare for possible outbreaks of communicable diseases.

By the end of October, US$ 737 million of the $985 million requested in the 2017 Humanitarian Response Plan was received, representing  75 per cent of the total funds required. Despite the underfunding aecting some clusters, over 100 per cent of the target population were reached with some form of assistance, with the highest numbers reached by the Health Cluster. These gures include people reached by projects and programmes outside of the appeal.