Abstract
Background: Equity is one of three dimensions of universal health coverage (UHC). However, Iraq has had capitalfocused health services and successive conficts and political turmoil have hampered health services around the country. Iraq has embarked on a new reconstruction process since 2018 and it could be time to aim for equitable healthcare access to realise UHC. We aimed to examine inequality and determinants associated with Iraq’s progress
towards UHC targets.
Methods: We assessed the progress toward UHC in the context of equity using six nationally representative population-based household surveys in Iraq in 2000–2018. We included 14 health service indicators and two fnancial risk protection indicators in our UHC progress assessment. Bayesian hierarchical regression model was used to estimate  the trend, projection, and determinant analyses. Slope and relative index of inequality were used to assess wealthbased inequality
 
 
 

During 2019, post-conflict Iraq witnessed an increased number of people returning to their Areas of Origin (AoO), although not always voluntary, safe and dignified. This was mainly due to the plan of the Government of Iraq (GoI) to close down all the existing IDP camps by the middle of 2020. However, the main obstacles in the path of IDPs returning to their AoO are destroyed homes, loss of livelihoods, ethnic tensions, perceived affiliations and expected collective punishme

It is estimated that, overall, around 4.1 million people will continue to need some form of humanitarian assistance in 2020, almost half of whom (1.77 million) have acute humanitarian needs. 1.5 million people remain displaced, of whom 288.46 thousand have been identified to be in need of assistance within IDP camps, while a sizeable number of them have been in protracted displacement for more than three years.

 

 

Level of current health expenditure expressed as a percentage of GDP. Estimates of current health expenditures include healthcare goods and services consumed during each year. This indicator does not include capital health expenditures such as buildings, machinery, IT and stocks of vaccines for emergency or outbreaks

 

 Contains data from World Health Organization's data portal coverin the following categories:

Mortality and global health estimates, Sustainable development goals, Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Health systems, Malaria, Tuberculosis, Child health, Infectious diseases, Neglected Tropical Diseases, World Health Statistics, Health financing, Tobacco, Substance use and mental health, Injuries and violence, HIV/AIDS and other STIs, Public health and environment, Nutrition, Urban health, Noncommunicable diseases, Noncommunicable diseases CCS, Negelected tropical diseases, Infrastructure, Essential health technologies, Medical equipment, Demographic and socioeconomic statistics, Health inequality monitor, Child malnutrition, TOBACCO, Neglected tropical diseases, International Health Regulations (2005) monitoring framework, 0, Insecticide resistance, Oral health, Universal Health Coverage, Global Observatory for eHealth (GOe

 

 

Previous estimates of mortality in Iraq attributable to the 2003 invasion have been heterogeneous and controversial, and none were produced after 2006. The purpose of this research was to estimate direct and indirect deaths attributable to the war in Iraq between 2003 and 2011.
Methods and Finding We conducted a survey of 2,000 randomly selected households throughout Iraq, using a two-stage cluster sampling method to ensure the sample of households was nationally representative. We asked every household head about births and deaths since 2001, and all household adults about mortality among their siblings. We used secondary data sources to correct for out-migration. From March 1, 2003, to June 30, 2011, the crude death rate in Iraq was 4.55 per 1,000 person-years (95% uncertainty interval 3.74–5.27), more than 0.5 times higher than the death rate during the 26-mo period preceding the war, resulting in approximately 405,000 (95% uncertainty interval 48,000–751,000) excess deaths attributable to the conflict. Among adults, the risk of
 
 
 
 

This Desk Study has been prepared by UNEP as a contribution to tackling the immediate postconflict humanitarian situation in Iraq, and the subsequent rebuilding of the country’s shattered infrastructure, economy and environment. It is intended for a wide audience and includes information likely to be of value to many of the stakeholders involved in shaping the future of Iraq.

The study focuses on the state of Iraq’s environment against the context of decades of armed conflict, strict economic sanctions and the absence of environmental management principles in national planning.

Attention is drawn to possible next steps, including urgent measures to minimize, mitigate and remediate immediate environment-related threats to human health (e.g. from disrupted or contaminated water supplies, and from inadequate sanitation and waste systems). Suggestions are also made for wider measures, including field missions at an early stage to address the key environmental vulnerabilities and risks identified, and to prepare appropriate action plans, including clean-up and risk reduction measures. At the time of writing (22 April), restoring law and order is a key priority and a prerequisite for dealing effectively with humanitarian and environmental problems.

 

 

This note provides country of origin information (COI) and analysis of COI for use by Home Office decision makers handling particular types of protection and human rights claims (as set out in the Introduction section). It is not intended to be an exhaustive survey of a particular subject or theme. It is split into two main sections: (1) analysis and assessment of COI and other evidence; and (2) COI. These are explained in more detail below.
The country information in this note has been carefully selected in accordance with the general principles of COI research as set out in the Common EU [European Union] Guidelines for Processing Country of Origin Information (COI), dated April 2008, and the Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation’s (ACCORD), Researching Country Origin Information – Training Manual, 2013. Namely, taking into account the COI’s relevance, reliability, accuracy, balance, currency, transparency and traceability. 
 
 
 
 
 

Of 505 doctors, 446 (87.3%) had experienced hospital violence in the previous 6 months. Doctors reported that patients were responsible for 95 (21.3%) instances of violence, patient family or relatives for 322 (72.4%), police or military personnel for 19 (4.3%), and other sources for 9 (2%). The proportion of violent events reported did not differ between male and female doctors, although characteristics varied. There were 415 of the 505 doctors who reported that violence had increased since the beginning of the pandemic, and many felt the situation would only get worse. COVID-19 has heightened tensions in an already violent health workplace, further increasing risks to patients and health providers.

 

 

Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the resilience of health systems in four governorates afected by confict from 2014 to 2018, and to convey recommendations.
Methods: Health managers from Al Anbar, Ninawa, Salah al-Din, and Kirkuk governorates discussed resilience factors of Primary Health Care services afected by the 2014–2017 ISIS insurgency in focus groups, and general discussions.Additional information was gathered from key informants and a UNICEF health facility survey. Three specifc aspects  were examined: (1) meeting health needs in the immediate crisis response, (2) adaptation of services, (3) restruc‑ turing and recovery measures. Data from a MoH/UNICEF national health facility survey in 2017 were analyzed for functionality.
 
 
 
 
 

The report offers a description of the structure of the health sector in Iraq. The categories and stakeholders that comprised the sector. Mainly the public and the private sector, alongside, international agencies that work in Iraq. These agencies include the likes of the World Health Organization, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, UNICEF, the Iraq Health Access Organization, and Médecins Sans Frontières. Many of which have been in Iraq for decaThe report offers a description of the structure of the health sector in Iraq. The categories and stakeholders that comprised the sector. Mainly the public and the private sector, alongside, international agencies that work in Iraq. These agencies include the likes of the World Health Organization, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, UNICEF, the Iraq Health Access Organization, and Médecins Sans Frontières. Many of which have been in Iraq for decades, offering assistance and partnerships with the Ministry of Health (MOH).des, offering assistance and partnerships with the Ministry of Health (MOH).