خضعت صناعة توليد ونقل وتوزيع الكهرباء والإصلاحات فيها لعواقب الحروب المدمرة والحصار الدولي والعقوبات الاقتصادية وتقلبات مزاج الدكتاتور ومصالح حاشيته ، وهي تخضع اليوم لمصالح الرأسمال الأميركي والأحتكارات الدولية . وألحقت سياسات صدام حسين الضرر البالغ بالبنية التحتية وسببت الهدر السريع للثروات والهلاك لمئات الآلاف من العراقيين والقوى العاملة واستنزاف العقول والهجرة الجماعية للكفاءات العلمية والثقافية والهبوط الحاد في مستوى المعيشة وتدني أنظمة الصحة والتعليم.
تهدف هذه الدراسة تتبع تأسيس الكهرباء في بلادنا وسط التوترات السياسية الداخلية والإقليمية والعالمية منذ تأسيس الدولة العراقية الحديثة والفوضى البرلمانية في العهد الملكي وتقوض وضياع أسس المجتمع المدني في العهود اللاحقة وتشرذم حقوق الملكية في هذا النفق الطويل المظلم عبر أعتى دكتاتورية شهدها العراق الحديث وبالإحتلال الأجنبي. ودراسة تاريخ تطور الكهرباء تعني يقينا أستعراض نموها ارتباطا بالصراعات الأجتماعية والسياسية… لكن محاولات كهذه تستوفي مستلزمات البحث العلمي تبقى غير كاملة ومتكاملة لأن النظام البائد حصر الثروة المعلوماتية في قبضته والأفتقار بالتالي للبيانات اللازمة للأستدلال ودعم الحجج ، وبسبب الخراب
والفوضى التي ترافقت مع وأعقبت سقوط البعث الحاكم وأعمال التخريب والنهب والسلب اللاحقة التي زادت من الأزمة المعلوماتية تفاقما
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الثاكرلكئلك ال سللك الفعكلك ف تط ر اق ك وكا الاج اعكا. إن الطكقك التهرلكئلك ف العراق من الا ضاااا عكا ال لم و حا فلهك أكك والك إال مك در، إذ لم تساااااا عال التهرلكت ف العهد العثاك ، اإ اك كك هنكك محكاالا الساااااا عاكل التهرلكت من لعض ال الة العثاك للن الذون حتا ا العراق التن لعد قلكم الحرب العكلالك امالى 1914 -1918 ،اهزواك الدالك العثاك لك اتاتن لروطك لك من اح الل العراق امد ف ذهك االساااااالطرة علل فقد قكم ل عض اإل راتاا منهك ا كل تا من االوك لغدا عكم 1917 .ثم ال اااااارة عكم 1918 ثم إلى التهرلكت إلى العراق لد امل وك ام رى كاك سن لن ذلك من الل الرسكلك، اكله أن التهرلكت قد تط را ف تا ا من ازارة امشغكل االا اصالا، العراق لد من ائرة للدوك لغدا ثم أص ح زت ال أسلس ازارة ال نكعك عكم 1959 أص ح التهرلكت هلئك ف ال زارة، اأص ح زتا منهك. اق ضاا ي لعك الرسااكلك أن ت زع على أرلعك ف اا ل تساا قهك الاقدمك اتعق هك اللكتاك. تضااااان الف اااال امال لداوكا تأساااالس التهرلكت ف العراق ح ى عكم 1932 اه ف ال تاهلدا اشا ال على ثالثك م كحا، تنكال الا حا امال الق ا لن ف العهد العثاك ، الداوكا التهرلكت مع االح الل ال روطك ف لغدا ، ا اااااا الا حا الثك لدراساااااااك لداوكا التهرلكت ف أل وك العراق، فلاك عنى الا حا الثكلا ل ط ر ات سع دمكا التهرلكت ف لغدا ح ى عكم 1932. ا اكت الف ااااااال الثاك

Iraq has been facing a severe power crisis since 2003 and is projected to surge in the long run. Efforts so far had been focusing on the supply side, while neglecting an equally important aspect of improving the energy efficiency on the demand side. The technical and commercial losses exceed 50 percent of the generated power. The majority of the losses are in the residential sector, which represents the highest energy consumer from the demand side. This report discusses the current status of energy efficiency in the residential sector of Iraq including policies and regulatory setup. The institutional, financial and technical barriers are discussed which could form an overarching basis to the core principle of transition towards a common vision of environmental protection, emissions reduction, resource efficiency, security of supply and consumer protection

 
 
 
 
 
The electricity sector is an essential indicator of the development and the economic growth of a country. It is also a key player to promote the growth and the stability of the industrial sector (Burke et al., 2018). The Iraqi economy is known to be oil-dependent that lacks other developed sectors. According to the International Monetary Fund, around 89% of government revenues in 2017 were from crude oil exports. The main focus of the government is on the petroleum industry which has led to the negligence of other sectors like the electrical and industrial sectors. The electrical sector has become highly dependent on the money generated from the oil revenues which are in turn proved to be unstable.
In this report, we will discuss the electrical sector from the state perspective, illustrate the role of the private sector, the latest developments, and highlight the possible ways to stabilize the fluctuating electrical grid.
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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Despite  massive  economic  and  human  potential,  Iraq  has  suffered  from  decades  of  conflict  and economic  volatility.  The  government  of  Iraq  (GoI)  faces  the  dual  challenge  of  stabilizing  and  growing  the economy while also ensuring security, jobs, and basic services to Iraqis across the country. A resource‐rich, middle‐income country, Iraq has experienced internal and regional struggles seeking to align political institutions with  diverse  and  cross‐cutting  socioeconomic,  ethnic,  and  religious  identities.  As  highlighted  in  the  Iraq Systematic Country Diagnostic (SCD) report of 2017, the combination of oil wealth and the mismanagement of political  and  social  diversity  has  led  to  acute  fragility  and  conflict,  exacerbated  by  long‐standing  governance problems and the challenge of ensuring a more equitable allocation of national resources
 
 
 
 
We set out two main components to this Iraq Distribution Reform and Roadmap Project and they encompass:
         A supplemental investment program of USD 2.0 billion which complements existing reform and investment plans by the Ministry of Electricity. This supplemental investment program includes plans to physically upgrade, rehabilitate, expand and strengthen the distribution network and to improve its operational efficiencies. The investment program addresses areas not yet envisaged or emphasized as priority by the MoE.
 
        A policy reform agenda, industry restructuring, institutional, legal, regulatory and governance changes which will transform the Iraq ESI from a civil service departmental enterprise structure and public sector monopoly utility to an unbundled, liberalised, commercially oriented industry, with the necessary environment for major private sector participation, especially in the generation and distribution retail business. Instead of a monopoly market
structure the Iraq ESI will transition first to a single buyer market structure and to a competitive wholesale power market over the medium to long term
 
 
 
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Despite the extraordinary challenges of war in recent years, Iraq has made impressive gains, nearly doubling the country’s oil production over the past decade. But the turmoil has also undermined the country’s ability to maintain and invest in its power infrastructure. This report maps out immediate practical actions and medium-term measures to tackle the most pressing problems in Iraq’s electricity sector. It also takes a detailed look at the country’s oil and gas sector, projecting that Iraq’s oil production will grow by 1.3 million barrels a day by 2030, becoming the world’s fourth-largest oil producer behind the United States, Saudi Arabia and Russia.
 
 
 
 
 
 
On February 21, 2020, Iraq recorded its first case of the novel coronavirus. Five months later, total recorded cases are   129 000 at the time of writing, and daily reported deaths almost 100. The crisis has battered the country’s economic development plans, and put an indefinitequestion mark over the realisation of a massive US$ 15 billion electricity infrastructure upgrade roadmap announced by formerPrime Minister Adel Abdel Mehdi in April last year. Simultaneously, global energy markets continue to struggle ever since the oil market collapsed between March and April, briefly plunging oil price will drop to low single-digit. Iraq’s hydrocarbon revenues have, as a resultfallen to their lowest since the early years after the 2003 US invasion1
 
 
 
 
 
 
As we move further into the 21st Century, resources around the world—partcularly water and electric power—are increasingly stressed by population growth and by the spatially uneven impacts of climate change. In this environment, the lessons unfolding in Iraq and Syria attest to the need for a deep understanding of the essential role of these resources in societal interactions and of the impact of their militarization. This study advocates an approach that calls attention to these resources and the complexities they present for reducing and rebuilding after conflict. It moves the discussion beyond problem definition to present a coordinated methodology for disaster response and post-conflict reconstruction with the nexus of these water and energy resources in mind. The study identifies that: