The Tigris River is the second largest river in Western Asia. Its basin is shared by four countries: Iran, Iraq, Syria and Turkey. Besides contributions from precipitation that originates in the Armenian Highlands, the Tigris is fed by numerous tributaries that rise in the Zagros Mountains in Iran, Iraq and Turkey.
The Tigris has a higher water yield than the Euphrates River. Historically, the natural annual flow of the Tigris at the Iraqi-Syrian-Turkish border was around 21 BCM. In recent years, Tigris flow volumes have been affected by large water development projects in Iraq and Turkey. The flow volume records for Kut show a significant negative trend. Water supplies to the
Mesopotamian Marshlands have also dwindled over the past 40 years

 

 

 

 

 

Water shortages have been for a long time a serious problem in the Middle East as well as other parts of the world. The large and arid land of the Middle East has also been dependant on water which is provided by few rivers. This issue has been tackled by researchers, orientalists and exploration associations (Palestine Exploration Fund 1882, and Oliphant, 1880). The aim of this paper is to tackle ways of managing and solving chromic water shortages and hydropolitical tensions in the Middle East. None of the Middle Eastern Countries enjoys water surplus with exception of Turkey. Fortunately, some Arab countries such as Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Oman which suffers from water shortages enjoys fuel surplus. These countries are trying to solve their water shortages by using underground water and heavily investing in water desalination. Other countries like Palestine, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq are losing their grip on their national water as a result of sever and perpetuated conflicts which have never ended since the First World War. In terms of technological progress 

 

 

 

For several years now, the Middle East, and particularly Iraq, has been suffering from a dire water crisis, compounded by the decrease in water quantities from rivers flowing from upstream to downstream countries. Iraq has been severely affected by this; as there are no alternative sources of water commensurate with consumption. These factors are at the heart of the region’s conflicts and are liable to explode at any time; especially after recent climatic and environmental changes; the scarcity of water in dams and rivers, and the lack of rainfall at a time of increasing demand stemming from increased consumption. It is evident that this is a large and complex crisis; not only for Iraq, but also for the other countries which benefit
from the rivers flowing into them.

 

 

 

Iraq is one of the Middle East and North African countries (MENA region). The country is currently facing a serious water shortage problem. This problem is expected to be more severe in the future where the supply is predicted to be 43 and 17.61 Billion Cubic Meters (BCM) in 2015 and 2025 respectively while current demand is estimated to be between 66.8 and 77 BCM. It has been estimated that the Tigris and Euphrates river discharges will continue to decrease with time, and they will be completely dry by 2040. Serious, prudent and quick measures need to be taken to overcome this problem. The government should take measures to have a strategic water management vision, including regional cooperation and coordination, research and development, improving agriculture and sanitation sector as well as public awareness program. These measures are required in order to address the following topics: Strategic Water Management Vision, Regional cooperation and coordination, Irrigation and Agriculture, Water Supply and Sanitation, and Research and Development. 

 

 

 

Abstract

The current paper emphasizes on the study of the water resources of Iraq. Iraq is facing a dire water crisis due to the decrease in the quantities and degradation in the qualities of the water reaching its borders with the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates. The Euphrates and Tigris rivers provide more than 98% of Iraq’s water demands for the various purposes. Degradation of these rivers has become a serious problem. Analysis of the previous studies is made and the available data are collected. Most of the studies reached an important conclusion, Iraq face serious water shortage problem. Analysis and Expectation of the population size, study of the existing agricultural use and expansion of the cultivated land are presented. The consumption of water withdrawals for the three purposes Agricultural, municipal, and industrial use are analyzed and presented in the paper. In addition, the Expectations of the share per capita are made for the Future until 2100, depending on the expectations of population size and amount of water supply. The water power is studied and suggestions for the new plant are made. Furthermore, some of the discharged fresh water to the Arabian Gulf represents a loss of fresh water. Suggestion to save this loss by constructing a new dam to separate between the fresh and salt water upstream Basra city is suggested. Some of the collected data is included in the pape