In central Iraq, the mean annual temperature over the period 1938-1967 is 22.7°C. The mean maximum and mean minimum temperatures in January (coldest month) are 16.1°C and 4.2°C respectively. In the hottest months (July and August) the mean maximum temperature is 43.5°C and the mean minimum temperatures of these months are 25.3°C and 24.7°C respectivily. The mean annual rainfall at Baghdad is 151.4 mm, mostly falling from November to April (see table 1). Rainfall is mostly in the form of showers. The period from June to October is absolutely dry. According to BURINGH (1960) only 25 % of the winter rainfall may be effective in central and southern Iraq,






On the basis of a comprehensive analysis of the water resources utilization in the Republic of Iraq under progressive desertification conditions, the conclusion is drawn about the need to undertake measures for rationalization of fresh water usage in view of its shortage in the external sources: rivers, lakes, and bogs. The most important measures include the organization of drip irrigation and irrigated agriculture, the construction of dams intercepting flood waters, and the tapping of subsurface waters in droughty provinces. It is also necessary to restitute the international regulations concerning the equitable distribution of the transboundary waters within the drainage basins of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
The location of Al-Thirthar, Al- Habaniya and Al-Razzazah Depressions is in the central part of Iraq, west of Tigris River. The age of the exposed rocks ranges from Early Miocene to Holocene. They represent Euphrates Formation (Early Miocene), Fatha Formation (Middle Miocene), Injana Formation (Late Miocene),Dibdibba Formation (Pliocene-Pleistocene) and Quaternary sediments. The depressions represent the west margin of the Mesopotamia Zone along its boundary with Al-Salman Zone.
 To study the tectonic of the depressions we used the results of reflection seismic data interpretations and satellite images. The selected seismic reflection sections reveal that the sedimentary basin beneath the three depressions is suffered several stages of extension because of location of the study area near the northeast passive margin of the Arabian plate. The first stage of the extension took place during Late Triassic followed by several pulses of extensions continued to the Miocene then reactivated some of the normal faults. The sedimentary basin underwent to strike slip movement in Miocene age. 
The Water Quality Index has been developed mathematically to evaluate the water quality of Al-Gharraf River, the main branch of the Tigris River in the south of Iraq. Water samples were collected monthly from five sampling stations during 2015–2016, and 11 parameters were analyzed: biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, the concentration of hydrogen ions, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, phosphates, nitrates, chlorides, as well as turbidity, total hardness, electrical conductivity and alkalinity.
The index classified the river water, without including turbidity as a parameter, as good for drinking at the first station, poor at stations 2, 3, 4 and very poor at station 5. When turbidity was included, the index classified the river water as unsuitable for drinking purposes in the entire river. The study highlights the importance of applying the water quality indices which indicate the total effect of the ecological factors on surface water quality and which give a simple interpretation of the monitoring data to help local people in improving water quality.




Iraq is home to the Cradle of Civilization, where two mighty rivers helped create life as we know it. So what will happen now that Iraq’s water is drying up? And what can the country do to turn the tide?
For years, a host of analysts, pundits, and politicians have advocated the breakup of Iraq, and their calls have only grown louder since the Islamic State’s 2014 waltz through a solid third of the country. Some support independence for the Kurds in the north, Sunni Arabs in the west, and Shiite Arabs in the south. Others call for federalization, but foresee so much autonomy for the three regions that it differs from partition in name only. All hope that separation can lead to peace between the three communities. But these hopes are belied by the physical reality of Iraq, and especially its water









Increased demand on water due to fast population growth and economic development combined with Climate Change puts a lot of stress on Iraq’s development. Moreover, the impact of climate change in Iraq has been very profound during the past decades. Climate Change impacts are seen clearly in many forms. It is observed as a decrease in annual flow rates of Tigris River and Euphrates River from upstream countries, increase in their salinity, noticeable reduction in annual precipitation, increased frequencies of dust and sand storms, desertification..etc. Aquifers are also threatened because of a weak management regime. This combination is a sustainability issue central to Iraq’s future and next generations








t. In recent years, substantial changes have occurred in the morphology of the River Tigris within Baghdad City. Although huge volumes of sediment are being trapped in recently constructed headwater reservoirs, the number of islands in the Tigris at Baghdad is increasing. The debris of bridges destroyed in the wars of 1991 and 2003 and their subsequent reconstruction have enhanced the development of these islands. As a consequence the ability of the river to carry the peaks of flood waters has been reduced. This has led to potential increase of flooding in parts of the city. The bed of the River Tigris has been surveyed on three occasions (1976, 1991, and 2008). The most recent survey was conducted by the Ministry of Water Resources, extended 49 km from the Al-Muthana Bridge north Baghdad to th




Mosul Dam is located on the Tigris River in north western part of Iraq; approximately 60 km northwest of Mosul city and 80 Km from Syrian and Turkish borders (Figure 1). It is a multipurpose project for irrigation, flood control and hydropower generation. It is 113 m in height, 3.4 km in length, 10 m wide in its crest and has a storage capacity of 11.11 billion cubic meters. The water surface area of the reservoir at the beginning of the dam operation was 380 km2 with a storage capacity of 11.11 km3 at the maximum operation level 330 m
(a.s.l.) including 8.16 km3 live storage and 2.95 km3 dead storage. It is an earth fill dam, constructed on bedrocks of the Fatha Formation, which consists of gypsum beds alternated with marl and limestone, in cyclic nature. The thickness of the gypsum beds attains 18 m; they are intensely karstified even in foundation rocks. This has created number of problems during construction, impounding and operation of the dam







From the moment in early 2014 that fighters from the Islamic State (also known as ISIS) surged into Fallujah and seized the city’s dam, Mohammed Amin feared the worst. As a farmer who was heavily dependent on an aging network of canals that flow east out of the Euphrates River, Amin knew how easily the jihadists might sabotage his crops. And so when the group slammed the Fallujah dam shut that August, flooding much of Baghdad’s agricultural belt and halting an Iraqi army advance, Amin was better prepared than most. “I kept my seeds, my fertilizer, everything up high. I had this feeling,” he said.