This paper estimates the potential effects of achieving the agricultural goals set out in Iraq’s National Development Plan (NDP) 2013–2017 using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model. The findings suggest that raising agricultural productivity in accordance with the NDP may more than double average agricultural growth rates and add an average of 0.7 percent each year to economywide gross domestic product during the duration of the plan. As a consequence, the economy not only diversifies into agriculture, but agricultural growth also lifts growth in the food processing and service sectors. Achieving the yield targets for cereals (especially wheat) and for fruits and vegetables will have the largest impact on economic growth and household incomes. Household incomes will rise by an estimated 3.3 percent annually. This increase in household incomes will benefit the poorest households and female-headed urban households the most due to a combination of lower food prices and higher incomes from labor and land. Reaping these benefits from agricultural growth will critically depend on the implementation of policies and investments to ensure that additional agricultural produce can be marketed efficiently domestically and compete with imports




The agriculture sector is vital to Iraq’s economy and has been the second largest contributor to the country’s gross domestic product (GDP). The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) has escalated armed activities in the summer of 2014 at a particularly crucial time in the agricultural calendar, leading to significant damage and loss to the sector.
Harvested wheat, barley and vegetables were lost due to population displacements, looting and the burning of grain bins. Farmers were unable to plant for the next agricultural season. According to a research conducted in March 2016, Iraq has lost 40 percent of agricultural production since ISIL began occupying some of the most important agricultural areas in 2014, with damages continuing from the current armed conflict.



The Iraqi Government is seriously considering the construction of a dam on the Euphrates River near the town of Haditha to better control water for irrigation on the Mesopotamian Plain, to generate hydropower and to alleviate flooding. The objective of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of possible losses from the reservoir due to seepage and evaporation.
To estimate the water balance for the reservoir, all components must be estimated. Inflow was estimated based on the historical flow regime of the river but adjusted for the water requirements upstream in Syria and Turkey. Evaporation from the reservoir was estimated from pan evaporation data. Seepage losses were estimated by the Green and Ampt approach for infiltration. Complexity of the reservoir bed soil and limited data allowed only rough estimates of the water balance components



The Euphrates–Tigris River Basin is a transboundary basin with a total area of 879 790 km2 distributed between Iraq (46 percent), Turkey (22 percent), the Islamic Republic of Iran (19 percent), the Syrian Arab Republic (11 percent), Saudi Arabia (1.9 percent) and Jordan (0.03 percent) (Lehner et al, 2008) (Table 1). The Islamic Republic of Iran is riparian only to the Tigris, and Jordan and Saudi Arabia are riparian only to the Euphrates. Both the Euphrates and the Tigris rise in themountains of eastern Turkey and the basin has high mountains to the north and west and extensive lowlands to the south and east. Two-thirds of their courses go



The study area lies in the central part of Iraq, in Al-Anbar Governorate, it covers about (4400) km2 .It includes Al-Habbinya Lake which represent touristic region and waterish reserves used for water balance management of Euphrates River.

Remote sensing and GIS techniques were adopted as practical tools for long term monitoring of Al-Habbinya Lake (1990-2001) to study Environmental change detection in the study area using ERDAS 9.1 Imagine and Arc GIS 9.1 programs.

 Supervised classifications were applied for the LANDSAT5 and LANDSAT7 images to classify the data and determine the change which took place during the period (1990-2001).
 The outcomes of these processes are two classification maps display eight classes of the land cover types for TM (1990) image in total classification accuracy reached 91.14% and a kappa coefficient 0.8989, eight classes of the land cover types for ETM (2001) image in total classification accuracy reached 93.06% and a kappa coefficient 0.9221. 


Since the early 1980s, it has been extremely difficult to obtain accurate statistics and reliable information on agricultural activities within Iraq. During the last two decades, agricultural systems in the dry-, irrigated- and range-lands of that country faced an unprecedented pressure to meet the food requirements of a population increasing at about 3% annually. The current situation is creating new, more intensive, and more diverse demands on farmers, agricultural producers and planners. Although the agricultural sector, during the last decade, has been given high priority to ensure food security through greater self-sufficiency, the country, and for the foreseeable future, will continue to depend on imported food.


Research on hydrology applications of satellite gravimetry has grown in importance during the last decade. Especially regions with large variations or declines in water masses are the focus of this research. Northern Iraq is one of them. Due to strong seasonality and yearly dierences of precipitation in the region large variations in water masses are common in this region. And a large decline in water mass during the drought period of 2006 till 2009, was the main reason to start a research on the water management and hydrology of the region. The main question to be answered during the research is: Is it possible to address and explain the water mass variation observed by GRACE using additional data and modeling techniques? This research question is answered using the following main calculation steps:

Observations acquired by Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission indicate a mass loss of 146 ± 6 mm equivalent water height (EWH) in northern Iraq between 2007 and 2009. These data are used as an independent validation of lake mass variations and a rainfallrunoff model, which is based on local geology and climate conditions. Model inputs are precipitation from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) observations, and climatic parameters from Global Land Data Assimilation Systems (GLDAS) model parameters. The model is calibrated with observed river discharge and includes a representation of the karstified aquifers in the region to improve model realism. Lake mass variations were derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) in combination with satellite altimetry and some in situ data




The Ministry of Environment's work plan for building the National Biodversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP) project is still ongoing, and it is by now well underway and developed. The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan are major parts of the totally new implementation process of the Convention on Biological Diversity for Iraq, and for which it has received funding through the GEF financial mechanism for the enabling activity project “First NBSAP for Iraq and Development of Fifth National Report to the CBD”. Within this context, the Iraqi Ministry of Environment with the support of UNEPROWA and the GEF, has organized four events to gather all the stakeholders that will be involved in adopting and implementing or giving technical advice for the NBSAP. On the other hand and according to the fifth component of the project detailed plan, 
The study area lies in the central part of Iraq, in Al-Anbar Governorate, it covers about (4400) km2 .It includes Al-Habbinya Lake which represent touristic region and waterish reserves used for water balance management of Euphrates River.
The present study depends on Thematic Mapper (TM) data of Landsat 5 acquisition in 1990, Enhancement Thematic Mapper (ETM) data of Landsat7 acquisition in 2001, these data are mosaic and subset it by using area of interest (AOI) file and made use of a nearest neighbor polynomial correction within the ERDAS 9.2 software.The images carried out with WGS84 datum and UTM N38 projection using nearest neighbor resampling.